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Log in. Already a member? Thank you for your interest and support. About LawInSport LawInSport is a knowledge hub, educational platform and global community of people working in or with an interest in sport and the law. Daniels v. Fan Duel - Another freedom of speech win for the fantasy sports industry Print.
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While the precise effect of this decision will play out in the coming months and years, we believe there are three key takeaways: First, the Indiana Supreme Court reaffirmed the ability of online-fantasy sports operators to utilize the names and statistics of athletes without their consent, further fortifying a landmark Eighth Circuit decision from 11 years ago. References 1 Daniels v. About the Author. Richard L. Glenn C. Melissa A. Leave a comment Please login to leave a comment. Official partners. John Bargh 's study offered an alternative view, holding that essentially all attitudes, even weak ones are capable of automatic activation.
Whether the attitude is formed automatically or operates with effort and control, it can still bias further processing of information about the object and direct the perceivers' actions with regard to the target. According to Shelly Chaiken , heuristic processing is the activation and application of judgmental rules and heuristics are presumed to be learned and stored in memory.
It is used when people are making accessible decisions such as "experts are always right" system 1 and systematic processing is inactive when individuals make effortful scrutiny of all the relevant information which requires cognitive thinking system 2. Unconscious thought theory is the counterintuitive and contested view that the unconscious mind is adapted to highly complex decision making.
Where most dual system models define complex reasoning as the domain of effortful conscious thought, UTT argues complex issues are best dealt with unconsciously. Dual process models of stereotyping propose that when we perceive an individual, salient stereotypes pertaining to them are activated automatically.
These activated representations will then guide behavior if no other motivation or cognition take place. However, controlled cognitive processes can inhibit the use of stereotypes when there is motivation and cognitive resources to do so. Devine provided evidence for the dual process theory of stereotyping in a series of three studies. Study 1 linked found prejudice according to the Modern Racism Scale was unrelated to knowledge of cultural stereotypes of African Americans.
Study 2 showed that subjects used automatically-activated stereotypes in judgments regardless of prejudice level personal belief.http://ncof.co.uk/la-lectora-de-jade-principal-de-los.php
Dual process theory - Wikipedia
Participants were primed with stereotype relevant or non-relevant words and then asked to give hostility ratings of a target with an unspecified race who was performing ambiguously hostile behaviors. Regardless of prejudice level, participants who were primed with more stereotype-relevant words gave higher hostility ratings to the ambiguous target. Study 3 investigated whether people can control stereotype use by activating personal beliefs. Low-prejudice participants asked to list African Americans listed more positive examples than did those high in prejudice.
Habituation can be described as decreased response to a repeated stimulus. According to Groves and Thompson, the process of habituation also mimics a dual process. The dual process theory of behavioral habituation relies on two underlying non-behavioral processes; depression and facilitation with the relative strength of one over the other determining whether or not habituation or sensitization is seen in the behavior.
Habituation weakens the intensity of a repeated stimulus over time subconsciously. As a result, a person will give the stimulus less conscious attention over time. Conversely, sensitization subconsciously strengthens a stimulus over time, giving the stimulus more conscious attention.
Though these two systems are not both conscious, they interact to help people understand their surroundings by strengthening some stimuli and diminishing others. According to Walker, system 1 functions as a serial cognitive steering processor for system 2, rather than a parallel system.
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In large-scale repeated studies with school students, Walker tested how students adjusted their imagined self-operation in different curriculum subjects of maths, science and English. He showed that students consistently adjust the biases of their heuristic self-representation to specific states for the different curriculum subjects. The brain's associative simulation capacity, centered around the imagination, plays an integrator role to perform this function.
Evidence for early-stage concept formation and future self-operation within the hippocampus supports the model,. By contrast, fast unconscious automaticity is constituted by unregulated simulatory biases, which induce errors in subsequent algorithmic processes. According to Alos-Ferrer and Strack the dual-process theory has relevance in economic decision-making through the multiple-selves model, in which one person's self-concept is composed of multiple selves depending on the context.
An example of this is someone who as a student is hard working and intelligent, but as a sibling is caring and supportive. Decision-making involves the use of both automatic and controlled processes, but also depends on the person and situation, and given a person's experiences and current situation the decision process may differ. Given that there are two decision processes with differing goals one is more likely to be more useful in particular situations.
For example, a person is presented with a decision involving a selfish but rational motive and a social motive. Depending on the individual one of the motives will be more appealing than the other, but depending on the situation the preference for one motive or the other may change. Using the dual-process theory it is important to consider whether one motive is more automatic than the other, and in this particular case the automaticity would depend on the individual and their experiences. A selfish person may choose the selfish motive with more automaticity than a non-selfish person, and yet a controlled process may still outweigh this based on external factors such as the situation, monetary gains, or societal pressure.
Although there is likely to be a stable preference for which motive one will select based on the individual it is important to remember that external factors will influence the decision. Dual process theory also provides a different source of behavioral heterogeneity in economics. It is mostly assumed within economics that this heterogeneity comes from differences in taste and rationality, while dual process theory indicates necessary considerations of which processes are automated and how these different processes may interact within decision making.
A belief bias is the tendency to judge the strength of arguments based on the plausibility of their conclusion rather than how strongly they support that conclusion. Studies on belief-bias effect were first designed by Jonathan Evans to create a conflict between logical reasoning and prior knowledge about the truth of conclusions. The results suggest when the conclusion is believable, people erroneously accept invalid conclusions as valid more often than invalid arguments are accepted which support unpalatable conclusions.
This is taken to suggest that System 1 beliefs are interfering with the logic of System 2. De Neys  conducted a study that manipulated working memory capacity while answering syllogistic problems. This was done by burdening executive processes with secondary tasks. Results showed that when System 1 triggered the correct response, the distractor task had no effect on the production of a correct answer which supports the fact that System 1 is automatic and works independently of working memory, but when belief-bias was present System 1 belief-based response was different from the logically correct System 2 response the participants performance was impeded by the decreased availability of working memory.
This falls in accordance with the knowledge about System 1 and System 2 of the dual-process accounts of reasoning because System 1 was shown to work independent of working memory, and System 2 was impeded due to a lack of working memory space so System 1 took over which resulted in a belief-bias. Vinod Goel and others produced neuropsychological evidence for dual-process accounts of reasoning using fMRI  studies. They provided evidence that anatomically distinct parts of the brain were responsible for the two different kinds of reasoning. They found that content-based reasoning caused left temporal hemisphere activation whereas abstract formal problem reasoning activated the parietal system.
They concluded that different kinds of reasoning, depending on the semantic content, activated one of two different systems in the brain. A similar study incorporated fMRI during a belief-bias test.
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The prefrontal cortex was critical in detecting and resolving conflicts, which are characteristic of System 2, and had already been associated with that System 2. The ventral medial prefrontal cortex, known to be associated with the more intuitive or heuristic responses of System 1, was the area in competition with the prefrontal cortex. They examined the neural correlates on the inferior frontal cortex IFC activity in belief-bias reasoning using near-infrared spectroscopy NIRS. Subjects performed a syllogistic reasoning task, using congruent and incongruent syllogisms, while attending to an attention-demanding secondary task.
The interest of the researchers was in how the secondary-tasks changed the activity of the IFC during congruent and incongruent reasoning processes. The results showed that the participants performed better in the congruent test than in the incongruent test evidence for belief bias ; the high demand secondary test impaired the incongruent reasoning more than it impaired the congruent reasoning. Participants with enhanced right IFC activity performed better on the incongruent reasoning than those with decreased right IFC activity.
This study provided some evidence to enhance the fMRI results that the right IFC, specifically, is critical in resolving conflicting reasoning, but that it is also attention-demanding; its effectiveness decreases with loss of attention. The loss of effectiveness in System 2 following loss of attention makes the automatic heuristic System 1 take over, which results in belief bias.
Matching bias is a non-logical heuristic. It mostly affects problems with abstract content. It doesn't involve prior knowledge and beliefs but it is still seen as a System 1 heuristic that competes with the logical System 2. The Wason selection task provides evidence for the matching bias. If you introduce a negative component into the conditional statement of the Wason Selection Task, e. Changing the test to be a test of following rules rather than truth and falsity is another condition where the participants will ignore the logic because they will simply follow the rule, e.
Studies have shown that you can train people to inhibit matching bias which provides neuropsychological evidence for the dual-process theory of reasoning. Pre-test results showed activation in locations along the ventral pathway and post-test results showed activation around the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate. Dual-process theorists claim that System 2, a general purpose reasoning system, evolved late and worked alongside the older autonomous sub-systems of System 1.
Mithen theorizes that the increase in cognitive ability occurred 50, years ago when representational art, imagery, and the design of tools and artefacts are first documented. She hypothesizes that this change was due to the adaptation of System 2. Most evolutionary psychologists do not agree with dual-process theorists. They claim that the mind is modular, and domain-specific, thus they disagree with the theory of the general reasoning ability of System 2. They have difficulty agreeing that there are two distinct ways of reasoning and that one is evolutionarily old, and the other is new.
The dual-process account of reasoning is an old theory, as noted above. But according to Evans  it has adapted itself from the old, logicist paradigm, to the new theories that apply to other kinds of reasoning as well. And the theory seems more influential now than in the past which is questionable. Evans outlined 5 "fallacies":.
Another argument against dual-process accounts for reasoning which was outlined by Osman is that the proposed dichotomy of System 1 and System 2 does not adequately accommodate the range of processes accomplished. They would be implicit heuristic processing, implicit rule-based processing, explicit heuristic processing, and explicit rule-based processing.
In response to the question as to whether there are dichotomous processing types, many have instead proposed a single-system framework which incorporates a continuum between implicit and explicit processes. It has not been accepted as better than the dual-process theory; it is instead usually used as a comparison with which one can evaluate the dual-process model. The DGC proposes that differences in representation generate variation in forms of reasoning without assuming a multiple system framework.
It describes how graded properties of the representations that are generated while reasoning result in the different types of reasoning. It separates terms like implicit and automatic processing where the dual-process model uses the terms interchangeably to refer to the whole of System 1. Instead the DGC uses a continuum of reasoning that moves from implicit, to explicit, to automatic.
According to Charles Brainerd and Valerie Reyna's fuzzy-trace theory of memory and reasoning, people have two memory representations: verbatim and gist. Verbatim is memory for surface information e. This dual process theory posits that we encode, store, retrieve, and forget the information in these two traces of memory separately and completely independently of each other.
Furthermore, the two memory traces decay at different rates: verbatim decays quickly, while gist lasts longer. In terms of reasoning, fuzzy-trace theory posits that as we mature, we increasingly rely more on gist information over verbatim information. Evidence for this lies in framing experiments where framing effects become stronger when verbatim information percentages are replaced with gist descriptions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Psychological theory. Not to be confused with Dual systems model. American Journal of Sociology. Implications for Cultural Analysis in Sociology".
Sociological Theory. Psychological Bulletin.
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